Friday, December 09, 2022

A Day's Jaunt Along the North Shore of Lake Ontario

05 November, 2022    

     Since we first met each other, a favourite outing for Miriam and me has been to explore various locations along the north shore of Lake Ontario. With a thermos of coffee, and homemade blueberry muffins for elevenses, and a hearty lunch packed in the cooler, we set off to enjoy the day.

Humber Bay Park East, Toronto, ON
     Before the amalgamation of various villages and local communities into the greater entity of the City of Toronto, the area where the Humber River spills into Lake Ontario was known as Mimico. For old-time residents it will always be Mimico!
     Humber Bay Park is a spit of land jutting out into the lake, divided into two discrete arms. Customarily we begin our exploration at the eastern section.
     Even as we were parking the car, we saw several Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola). This delightful little duck always engenders good feelings and we scurried down to the water's edge to see them.

     There were males.....

       ..... and there were females.

     There were little bachelor clubs here and there.

     And mixed groups too.

     Hooded Mergansers were equally prominent. Humber Bay Park, in fact, is one of the most reliable spots to find this bewitching species in the winter.

     Both sexes are very attractive, but the male, attired in his finery with crest erect is surely the Beau Brummell of the waterfowl world.

     This does not in any manner imply that the female is lacking in charm and attractiveness. 

     Seen together a pair makes a handsome couple.

     A Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) seems to have found an agreeable addition to its morning salad.

     And there were more Buffleheads!

     The following shot will convey the closeness of the buildings along the shore and  the extent to which they encroach close to the water's edge. 

     It is a sad testament to the greed of developers and the lack of vision of politicians that such intrusions are permitted, blocking the view of the lake from all but those who own property there. Surely that view should have been the birthright of all.
     A Mute Swan (Cynus olor) concerned itself not at all with such matters.

     Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) have shown themselves capable of adapting to just about any kind of degraded landscape humans present to them - and there is no shortage of that.

     Out on the bay we saw Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and some of them obligingly moved in close to shore. The first individual to approach was a female.

     It was not long before several males followed her arrival (where there is a female, males are generally not far behind)!

     It is such a spectacular duck, always seeming to me to have been coloured by children with a full box of markers.

     Their arrival, year after year,  is one of the signature events on my calendar, and the excitement does not fade with familiarity.
     Beavers have been active doing what beavers do.

     Lake Ontario, like all the Great Lakes, is in reality a vast interior sea. At times the winds drive the waves in a manner reminiscent of the ocean and breakers crash upon the beach.

     Take a close look at the picture above and note all the bits of plastic littering the beach, heaved up from the waters of the lake. It goes on without end. 
     The Great Lakes, these jewels of North America, contain about twenty-one percent of the world's fresh water, yet we have filled them with every kind of filth and poison imaginable, from "simple" trash to lifetime toxins and raw sewage, to consumer plastics, pop cans, beer cans, coffee cups, plastic straws and lids, styrofoam, tarpaulins, old tires, asphalt shingles, discarded furniture, industrial waste, sunken boats, human bodies and just about any other junk you can imagine. And we continue to do it. On and on. Every day. Cautions abound that we should not bathe in the water and should eat the fish only sparingly, and pregnant women ought not to eat Great Lakes fish at all. The cesspool we have created is even a hazard to the unborn. We don't have enough sense to protect the greatest reserve of fresh water on Earth - and we have the arrogance to consider ourselves the pinnacle of evolution. Hell, some even think we were created as special beings - to destroy everything and everyone in our path, I suppose. That's one area where we do a good job, a great job in fact. Our assault on nature, the environment, other species and our fellow humans continues apace with no end in sight. Ecosystems and nations are both being eliminated.

Humber Bay Park West, Toronto, ON

     The entrances to the east and west sections of the park are no more than a couple of hundred metres apart so one travels from one to the other in no time at all.
     Here is the view from the west side parking lot looking back to where we had just been.

     A group of Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis) was content to loaf on the mud.

     One of them, venturing into slightly deeper water,  had found a fish which was proving a challenge to subdue and swallow.

     Mute Swans regularly ply the passage around the whole landmass and brook no interference from any other species. 

     Dogs that stray too close are reminded that a swan's bill can hurt! The dogs shouldn't be off leash anyway, but who pays attention to rules? 
     Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) is a species to be expected in winter, and we were not disappointed.

Red-breasted Merganser ♀

Red-breasted Merganser ♂

     It was a windy day, with strong gusts at times, and the waves beat on the shore.

     The skyline of Toronto loomed large across the bay, and for those fond of cities, it is alleged to be first class.

     For me, it is an occasion to mourn the loss of one of the greatest wetland ecosystems ever to grace Lake Ontario, especially where the Don and Humber Rivers empty their riches into the lake. Gone forever, degraded for all eternity.

Colonel Samuel Smith Park, Toronto, ON

     We ambled along towards a corner of one of the bays where, for some reason that escapes me,  Gadwalls (Mareca strepera) assemble in large numbers every year.

     I haven't a clue what the attraction of that particular spot is. It appears no different from any other secluded corner, yet for well over thirty years I have infallibly found Gadwalls in precisely that spot.

     All of my conjecture has not come up with an answer to the puzzle, but I am delighted that their fidelity continues.
     It is a wonderful little duck, delicate in plumage and manner. Were I to see Gadwalls every day, I am quite sure my admiration would not wane in the slightest.

     It appeared that someone had left kibble or something similar at the shore and Mallards (Anas platyrynchos), Canada Geese and Ring-billed Gulls all seemed intent on claiming their share.

     The jostling was intense.

      Good table manner and a spirit of sharing were not in evidence!

     So many people dismiss gulls as being uninteresting, or even make them the object of scorn and derision, but they are very handsome birds and great survivors.

     Would that some of our cringeworthy politicians had the courage, grit and dedication of gulls.

     Canada Goose, monogamous, loyal, dedicated parent, deserves our respect to less. More than respect in fact, admiration is a term that springs to mind.

     We sat in our car and had lunch, joined by an American Robin (Turdus migratorius) who made a fine meal on the fruit of Staghorn Sumach (Rhus typhina). 

Douglas Kennedy Headland, Mississauga, ON

     This location is part of a complex of cells that form the area known as Lakefront Promenade; each cell forming distinct habitat and sufficently separated from each other to attract different species. 
     The first birds to greet us formed part of a huge assemblage of Canada Geese.

     A couple of Red-breasted Mergansers showed no hesitation in negotiating through the cavalcade of geese.

     A Mute Swan wanted to be left alone to enjoy an afternoon snooze.

     Several Hooded Mergansers were out on the water.

     And a Ring-billed Gull surveyed the world from its favourite perch.

A. E. Crookes Park, Mississauga, ON

     As were were parking the car, we noticed this beautifully patterned Eastern Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) skittering over to greet us.

     It assumed an upright stance and gazed at us quizzically; I suspect that others may bring peanuts for it.
     Yet another Ring-billed Gull occupied a lookout post.

     Miriam obtained this wonderful closeup shot where you are able to see through the nostrils.

Mississauga Sailing Club, Mississauga, ON   

     This is always a reliable spot to find American Herring Gulls (Larus smithsonianus) and today was no exception.

      The picture below provides a comparison between the size of herring gull and ring-bill.

     It is not so many years ago that American Herring Gull subtantially replaced Ring-billed Gull in the winter, but as mean winter temperatures have increased many Ring-billed Gulls no longer leave, and they always outnumber their larger cousins.
     As in every park, there are signs exorting people not to feed the birds, but it is always in vain. There is some mysterious human pleasure gene that surges to the surface when ducks, gulls, geese and swans vie for attention. The urge to feed them proves irresistible!

     Some enlightened citizens bring corn and other natural foods, yet far too many bring stale bread and day-old doughnuts, thereby affliciting the birds with the same unhealthy, corpulent bodies they themselves inhabit.

LaSalle Park and Marina, Burlington, ON

     One of our favourite birding spots at any time of year, but especially in winter, La Salle never fails to live up to expectations.
     Given the fact that Bufflehead had been our constant companion all day, it was entirely fitting that the first bird we saw on the water was a male Bufflehead.

     American Coot (Fulica americana) is frequently found at LaSalle park during the winter, and will often stay until spring if the bay does not freeze over. 

     A drake Mallard seems to be playing "Follow my Leader."
     It was a distinct pleasure to see a Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps).

     This is a very late bird, most of its kind having migrated by now, but very occasionally a hardy bird will spend the winter here.
     Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) are to be expected, and the number of this species will continue to swell.

     They are frequently found associating with other diving ducks, such as Bufflehead.

     The following sign was a bit of a puzzle.

     I have hoisted a beer, hoisted the flag, rigged up a hoist, have even been hoisted on my own petard, but never have seen a proscription against it. The things we learn - even in our dotage.
     Wonder if I'd be allowed to hoist a duck?
      I suspect that this lovely female Mallard would prefer I keep my hoisting to myself.

     Red-breasted Mergansers were pleasingly common and often quite close to shore.

     A Red-breasted Merganser is a handsome bird, but it takes a back seat to its hooded cousin.

     Common Goldeneye (Bucephela clangula) appear not to have arrived in numbers yet, but this male was spotted quite far out and the picture is quite heavily cropped.

     Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) are without a doubt the signature species at LaSalle during the winter.

     They have made a remarkable recovery in Ontario, thanks to the work of my friend Harry Lumsden and LaSalle Park provides a safe haven for them. They have an adoring public to advocate for their protection and their future looks bright.
     Perhaps Mallards look upon them as guardians.

     Pause for a moment and take the time to appreciate just how handsome a Mallard is.

     Harry would have loved seeing the level of dedication of Trumpeter Swan parents to young of the year. They will defend their young against all comers, with a ferocity that inhibits most would-be predators from even trying to attack.

     American Black Duck (Anas rubipres) may be reliably found at LaSalle Park.

     Canvasbacks (Aythya valisinaria) have begun to move in for the winter, and several were seen mingling with other species.

     I am sure you will not object to a couple more shots of Trumpeter Swans at rest.

     Domestic Mallards come in a dizzying array of colours, none perhaps as striking as the pure white version, know as Pekin Duck.

     I could delude myself into thinking that this Canada Goose was following me around to bathe in the shadow of my glorious personality; in reality it was hoping I had a pocket full of corn.

     It gazed at me longingly with those dark, limpid eyes and I felt sorry that I had nothing to give it. 
     White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis) scampered up and down trees searching for concealed morsels.

     I pointed something out to Miriam and one almost landed on my outstretched hand, realizing at the last moment it was empty.
     A male House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a handsome bird.

     A few White-winged Scoters (Melanitta deglandi) have moved in for the winter, but they were far out and the light was getting dim.

     The Pied-billed Grebe came to bid us goodbye.....

          .....followed by an American Coot.

     Time to say, "Adieu. À la prochaine mes amis."

     The sun was setting on what had been another perfect day. We will do it again soon.
David M. Gascoigne,
David M. Gascoigne,

I'm a life long birder. My interests are birds, nature, reading, books, outdoors, travel, food and wine.


  1. A brilliant, beautiful post. Thank you for sharing it with FFO.

    1. ...David, you sure saw some beautiful critters, Thanks for sharing them.

  2. Beautiful images that impart a sense of peace thank you.

  3. Thanks for sharing all these wonderful pictures. I feel like I was on that "jaunt" with you. I think my favorite picture is that close-up of the Ring-billed Gull.

  4. You have the most fascinating array of ducks that I have ever seen! Always love your posts. :)

  5. A wonderful post, David and thanks for sharing.

  6. Miło ogląda się taką dużą ilość ptactwa wodnego.

  7. TOTALLY delightful jaunts. That 'through the nostrils' shot is incredible.
    Thank you and Miriam for yet again sharing the wonders that surround you, despite
    'Our assault on nature, the environment, other species and our fellow humans continues apace with no end in sight.' How I wish you were wrong about that.

  8. You two were made for each other, both loving the outdoors, photography and the birds. This is a fabulous excursion. I'm wild about the hooded Mergansers -- they are so stunning. But it was fun to see gulls again (I won't see them for a long time) and the Canada geese, which I seem to only see now flying overhead!

  9. I love to watch all the beautiful and different birds who live in your area, David. Beavers are very smart and wise animals, and they live nearby here too. The Trumpeter Swans are very beautiful.
    Hugs and kisses, Marit

  10. ¡Qué preciosa salida amigo mío!, no faltó de nada y esos entrañables patos Bucephala albeola son una delicia, y francamente los Clangula hyemalis no se quedan atrás, verdaderamente tienen unos colores que como bien dices parecen haber sido coloreados por niños.
    Sí que causa una gran tristeza ver la imagen de las edificaciones junto a la orilla del lago, el ser humano no escarmienta, no aprendemos y siempre volvemos a tropezar con la misma piedra.
    Un reportaje que me ha encantado amigo David.
    ¡Cuanto le queda al ser humano por aprender!
    Recibir un afectuoso abrazo, con todo mi cariño, David y Miriam y os deseo un feliz fin de semana.

  11. Thank you David for showing us in an outstanding way the diversity that despite our invasive presence, Lake Ontario still harbors. The photos are wonderful and some of the birds that you show us are really beautiful. A big hug friend.

    1. One day you will have to come and see this for yourself, Julio.

    2. Hopefully the circumstances arise and we can repeat our visit to Canada, in 2014 we were in British Columbia and Alberta so we still have a lot to discover...

    3. Be sure to include Southern Ontario, Julio.

  12. Jak zawsze z ciekawością obejrzałam i przeczytałam. Interesują mnie kaczki. U siebie zimą i na przedwiośniu obserwujemy przybyszów z północy. Zawsze się cieszę, że mogę je obserwować i patrzeć na ich gody. Dziękuję za ciekawy fotoreportaż i opisy.

  13. What a lovely day you had, thank you for allowing me to join you through the wonderful photographs.

    I enjoyed seeing all the birds, ducks, critters especially the beautifully patterned Eastern Grey Squirrel.

    All the best Jan

  14. Hari OM
    I join in with the approbation of such a wonderful post - and you know that I am one for whom the Gulls hold value to my eye! Thank you both, for the images and the words. YAM xx

    1. I know that you are a gull aficionada, YAM, and I am always happy to have pictures for you. Gull people are special!

  15. Lots of ducks! The long-tails are so pretty. The hoisting prohibited sign is a mystery to me also. We saw our first hooded mergansers today and find it amazing that they arrive on almost exactly the same day every year.

  16. I am surprised I recognize most of these birds now. I haven’t seen a grieb or coot yet though. No mute swans either. I especially love the gadwall photos in this series, David. They are beauties!

    We get the scoters every year too but I haven’t seen the white-winged species.

  17. So many beautiful birds: ducks, geese, swans, songbirds!

  18. Love the glorious photos.
    I've not seen most of the birds you shared.

    Have a great weekend, David.

  19. Great you both could get in the vehicle and go off for the day doing what you enjoy doing.
    Love the white swans, and not good about the Lake, hopefully it will become cleaner as time goes on...take care.

  20. What beautiful pictures of your day of shooting David.
    Very beautiful the trumpeter swan, I have never seen it and it does not occur in the Netherlands, just like many other species that you show.
    Man destroys his own living environment and also that of the animals.
    Project developers are only concerned with money, they don't care about anything else.
    Greetings Irma

  21. Fabulous photos, as always, but how sad to see that even the Great Lakes are being defiled and polluted. And those huge buildings next to the water, just awful. Miriam's gull photo is fantastic! If you want to see Canada Geese anytime, just pop over here, we have huge colonies along the Rhine and in every park! Hugs, Valerie xx

  22. I was interested in the ring-billed gulls, and after I had read your post I googled some information about that bird. I also like the picture of the Estern grey squirrel.
    Sorry to hear about the loss of that wetland ecosystems ... many things we do have an impact on the enviroment.

    Have a nice weekend!

  23. A wonderful set of photos and you are so lucky to have places like this to go to despite the human damage.
    Humans are the worst race to be put on earth, it seems the main aim of many is to see how fast we can destroy the natural wonders of the world. There is little respect of animal life or terrain by far too many. Have a good weekend. Take care, Diane.

  24. What an amazing assortment of water fowl. I seem to only see 3 here-mallards, Canada geese and an occasional common merganser. Therefore I don't know my ducks at all. It was fun to see yours, and looks like you had some birding success. Hope the picnic lunch was yummy. Happy weekend. hugs-Erika

    1. This was our lunch: a boiled egg (each of course), ham and cheese sandwiches on multigrain bread, bean salad, chickpeas, olives, pickled beets and we had bananas and oranges too, but they never got eaten. We were full. Boiled eggs have become a tradition with us. Whatever else we pack for lunch we always have a boiled egg. Once in a while we even pack a "real" meal and take a tablecloth, and even a glass of wine! That's for better weather, however.

  25. Hello David,
    What a lovely collection of waterfowl photos. I enjoyed everyone of Miriam's photos. The gulls, swans and geese are lovely captures too. The Common Goldeneye is one I would like to see, I keep missing it when it appears in Maryland. It is sad to see so much pollution in and around the lakes. Thank you for linking up and sharing your post. Take care, have a happy weekend! PS, thank you for leaving me a comment.

    1. It is beyond sad, Eileen, it is tragic. I didn't even get into the problems with invasive species - Zebra Mussels, Lamprey, Asian Carp.......we sure know how to take something perfect and ruin it.

  26. So many different kinds of ducks! Some I've never seen or heard of but I suppose that's to be expected considering how far apart we live.

  27. Oh, and yes, humans are a very trashy species. What else fouls the very air, water, and soil they need to survive?

  28. It sure is a nice haven for the ducks. I hope they don't get into the colorful bits and try to eat them. How nice to capture these photos and share with us. Enjoy your weekend.

  29. An outstanding "seasonal" post! You have whetted my appetite for wintering waterfowl. We're seeing some migrants arriving in dribs and drabs and within a week or so our bays and coastal wetlands will be teeming with ducks and geese.

    The little Bufflehead has always been a personal favorite as it is a species which sparked my interest in pursuing birding as a serious hobby.

    Hope all is well, David.

  30. Looks as if you again nailed it with finding so many species of birds, and capturing such great images of them in their beautiful plumage. It is sad to conjure up images of the way that the Great Lakes must have looked several hundred years ago. So much destruction!

    best… mae at

  31. What a lovely outing. Those hooded mergansers and buffleheads are quite showy. I see why you like them so much. When we vacationed on the other side of Lake Ontario last summer I was surprised by how forceful the waves could be. It is an inland sea.

    1. And Lake Superior makes Lake Ontario seems like a duckpond!

  32. What a wonderful variety of water birds! And that Squirrel is just too cute!
    Great photos!
    Hope you are having a good weekend!

  33. Wonderful captures and sightings. The buildings near the water bodies are a cause for worry, here too.

  34. Wonderful pictures! I don’t think I have ever seen Long-tailed Ducks. Sad about the pollution.

    1. I fear that it is not going to get much better, Linda. Think of all the major cities along the shores of the lakes....Toronto, Hamilton, Rochester, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Duluth.......and so on.

  35. The future does not sound good. The lakes will be crowded by the buildings built on the shore, and their water will be full of plastic.

  36. I don't know where to begin!! Let me just say, your photos are stellar David. So many to name!!
    Have a terrific week ahead and thanks for linking up.

  37. Hi David.

    I enjoyed all the beautiful things you show.
    Beautiful ducks.
    The mergansers are beautiful.
    Long-tailed ducks never seen, they are beautiful.
    The American Robin is beautiful.

    It's worthless to see all that plastic between the boulders.
    And indeed the better and wealthier fellow man can always afford better places and views.

    Greetings from Patricia.

  38. Encantada de dar ese paseo con vosotros, muy feliz de ver tanta naturaleza, aunque también vi los plásticos en las orillas y no me gustan nada. Estaría feliz de conocer los lagos. Abrazos para Miriam y para ti de vuestra amiga Teresa.

  39. Those Hooded Mergansers are amazing. What a lovely post, thanks for sharing.

  40. I love that you have elevenses! The male Bufflehead is just gorgeous! I've never seen one! The Long-tailed Ducks are gorgeous, look at those eyes...I have never hoisted another person myself lol...beautiful photos David!

  41. What a variety and abundance of waterbirds. YOu are so lucky to watch them. Afew of the Mergansers and Buffle Heads make it down this way and are extremely shy of humns so stick to the less traveled parts of the river.

  42. This looks like such a wonderful day well spent. I learned a lot reading this post and am now determined to pay way more attention to the waterfowl when I am at our lake (which is just a puddle compared to the Great Lakes). I know next to nothing about ducks and feel lucky that I at least am able to recognize a mallard. When at the lake I'm always busy looking for the herons... Next time I go I will change my focus.
    Those high rise buildings right at the edge of the lake simply look awful, even though some of them are of very interesting architecture. How sad that there aren't any limitations to building. When it comes to the pollution of our lakes, rivers and oceans - it's agonizing that we simply go on like that and don't change anything at all. We seem to be determined to destroy this beautiful planet and we might be the first species that destroys itself. The peak of intelligence...

    1. If you need help with ID, Carola, don't hesitate to send pictures.

  43. So many great pictures. The Buffleheads, Long tailed Duck and Ring billed Gulls are my favourite.

  44. It seems you are telling a story through the pictures!!....beautiful......Abrazotes, Marcela

  45. Precioso reportaje de patos, cisnes y aves acuáticas, ha sido un paseo muy bonito.
    Muchos besos y abrazos.

  46. I regret that I've not been able to give this post from you the full attention it deserves, David, as I have my hands full at the moment - it's more difficult than either Lindsay or I anticipated, and she's barely mobile. This must have been one of the longest blog posts ever from you, and I'm full of admiration for the stamina that you both exhibit in visiting so many places in one day.

    Best wishes to you and Miriam - - Richard

    1. Good luck with all of this, Richard. I am sure that the recovery process is longer for some than others, and more difficult perhaps. At the end of it all though there will be increased mobility and that will make it all worthwhile. Be strong, Lindsay!

  47. David - "thermos" is such a provocative word - it brings to mind many happy memories of glorious walks. Loved the picture of the muskrat - an uncommon sighting for many of us. The Long-tailed Ducks are new to me, and I agree that the plumage of the males is spectacular. Pollution in all its forms is a scourge - we must try to defeat it even though the walls are high.

    1. If I remember correctly, Angie, you lived for a time in Oakville, ON. Bronte Harbour and the adjoining section of Lake Ontario generally has many Long-tailed Ducks in the winter, and quite often a Snowy Owl or two. Better come back!

  48. Hi David,
    Beautiful birds captured in excellent photos, I especially liked the Ring-billed Gulla trying to swallow the fish, great shot.

  49. Hello David,
    So if I want to be sure to find these beautiful Hooded Mergansers, I must keep this address!
    It's sad to see all those buildings just above the lake.
    Buffleheads are also wonderful.

  50. I was unaware of such a great variety of ducks. Love the black and white ones. We live probably 4 or 5 blocks from the river, but just today on my way home, a street or two away from my house there were dozens of ducks under a garden sprinkler, others slowly crossing the road. It is a quiet street, only busy during school drop off, and so I just stopped to let them cross. Unlike Sydney that also has a lot of million dollar properties right on the beaches or river, in Perth that is not allowed, and those million dollar houses are across the road from the beaches or river, as everyone has a right to enjoy the views.

  51. I really like the variety of Anatidae species that exist in that place, and almost all of them are very different from the ones where I live. As always very pleasant reading your publications. I catch up watching your blog, I've been on a birdwatching trip for a few days.

  52. I really like the variety of Anatidae species that exist in that place, and almost all of them are very different from the ones where I live. As always very pleasant reading your publications. I catch up watching your blog, I've been on a birdwatching trip for a few days.

  53. Hi David,
    Stunning images of all the beautiful waterbirds!!! Some we also see here in the Netherlands.surroundings ans so special for you! Nice to have there a break and enjoy your homemade blueberry muffins!

  54. Hello David, sorry for the late respons on this post, but better late than never. I enjoyed this post verry much. What great and beautiful waterbirds you have on your side of the globe. The colours, shapes are real gems.

  55. The pictures of your enjoyable outing are lovely. As I read about your environmental dismay, I had a vision of you and my husband having a like-minded conversation. Your "hoisting" section had me laughing.

    1. I don't even know your husband and I like him already!


Land Acknowledgement

We acknowledge that the land on which we are situated are the lands traditionally used by the Haudenosaunee, Anishinaabe, and Neutral People. We also acknowledge the enduring presence and deep traditional knowledge, laws, and philosophies of the Indigenous Peoples with whom we share this land today. We are all treaty people with a responsibility to honour all our relations.